Getting Into The Training Zone

By John Kain

We all have to do our cardio even though some of us like it more than others, personally I prefer a mix of different training methods and types of cardio to keep my mind occupied and normally in smaller, more intense chunks. Some people prefer to switch off and relax with long treadmill or road running sessions or lose themselves in their music on a bike or cross trainer.

Whichever method you choose, one important aspect is the intensity of the workout as this will have significantly different effects on the body. So before you start your cardio session or a new training programme it is well worthwhile thinking about what your end goal is.

Once that has been established, investing in a heart rate monitor would be a good idea, especially if you are new to training and unsure about what easy, moderate or intense exercise feels like.

Before you start training it is necessary to find your maximum heart rate, this is a fairly standardised calculation that is fairly accurate for most people and is based on the fact that as we get older our body’s maximum heart rate slowly comes down at a rate of about 1 beat per year. From numerous studies the relationship is actually a very linear one, and it is a very trustworthy calculation and is shown below.

220 – Age = Maximum Heart Rate (e.g. for a 40 year old, 220 – 40 = 180BPM max HR)

This is your starting point to calculate your training zones, whether you are a man or woman. This is also the basis for the numbers you see on a cardio machine that show you the CARDIO zone or FAT BURNING zone.

Like I said it’s a very reliable calculation to predict your max heart rate, but what it doesn’t take into account is your resting heart rate which could be very different between different individuals. By incorporating the HEART RATE RESERVE into the equation, in theory a more accurate training zone can be determined. Heart rate reserve is simply the difference between your maximum heart rate and your resting heart rate.


Heart rate has a relation with oxygen consumption especially when intensities rise to reach ranges between 50-90% VO2 max (VO2 max refers to the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilise during intense or maximal exercise. It is measured as millilitres of oxygen used in one minute per kilogram of body weight).

Thus exercise intensity as it is normally prescribed is the percentage of maximum heart rate (calculated using the formula 220 – age) so;

  • A 30 year old who has a maximum heart rate of 190bpm thus may want to train at 75% of his intensity at 143bpm.
  • The formula “220 – age” makes no allowances for variations in resting heart rate among individuals.
  • The formula for heart rate reserve allows a better target heart rate to be determined for optimum training capacity based on both maximum and resting heart rate.

Calculating Target Heart Rate with Karvonen Formula

220 – age = maximum heart rate Maximum heart rate – resting heart rate = heart rate reserve (Heart rate reserve X training%) + resting heart rate

Comparing the two formulas

To compare the two formulas, an example of a 45 year old man who has a resting heart rate of 60 beats per minute and who wants to train at 70% maximum is assessed. Target heart rate in this individual:- 220 – 45 = 175 beats per minute. This is the maximum heart rate.

According to Karvonen formula

(115 x 0.7) + 60 = 140.5 Thus 140.5 beats per minute is the target heart rate using this method. Using the traditional 220 minus age formula this same person would have a target heart rate of (220-45 X 0.7) or 122.5

You can see from the above comparison that there can be quite a large disparity between the two methods, I personally believe the Heart Rate Reserve to be more accurate and this figure will almost always be higher than the 220 – age formula and this is the one I use.


Now we know our max heart rate and our heart rate reserve percentages we can be sure we are training at the correct intensity for the desired effect. But what is it that happens at the different training intensities that is so important? Well the body reacts differently depending on the demands placed upon it and at the different training zones there are different physiological factors that are going to be improved.

You may have seen FAT BURNING zones on machines, and these can be a little misleading. Anything we do could be described as fat burning from sitting around doing nothing to sprinting. What the fat burning zone tends to mean is that at that particular intensity the primary energy source (once you have warmed up and fat has started to be metabolised, typically 15-20 minutes) comes from fat.

As the intensity increases, fat is still used but glycogen, the stored form of carbohydrates, is used in greater amounts to fuel the exercise, so the relative amounts of the different fuel sources changes from mainly fat to mainly glycogen. As intensity increases further, a greater amount of glycogen is used which decreases the relative amount of fat being burned (even though it may well be the same amount as was used in the fat burning zone). Other physiological factors are shown below at the different intensities.

MODERATE  55-70%

  • Increases utilisation of fat as a fuel
  • Increases number and size of mitochondria in muscles (these are the power houses of the cells taking in fuel and nutrients and producing energy)
  • Increases muscle capillary density

FITNESS  70-80%

  • Increases slow twitch fibre recruitment (slow twitch are the endurance muscles)
  • Improves oxygen transport
  • Increased efficiency of glycogen utilisation
  • Increases aerobic enzymes (these help to break down fuel for energy more efficiently)


  • Introduces fast twitch fibre recruitment (power or strength muscles used in sprinting etc.)
  • Increased efficiency of glycogen utilisation in the presence of little or no oxygen, this will increase the lactic acid tolerance of the body
  • Improved clearance of lactic acid from the muscles
  • Increased anaerobic threshold (this is the point at which the body can no longer remove the lactic acid from the working muscles quickly enough


  • Improved fast twitch fibre recruitment which should in turn increase the speed at which you can run etc.
  • Increased anaerobic enzymes
  • Increased VO2 Max (increased amount of oxygen taken up and available to use at maximum intensity)


So now you know the zones and the effects they have on the body you know where to train to achieve your goal whatever it may be. For more information talk to one of our trainers.


About John

John has been involved in fitness, one way or another for over 20 years and has a wide range of experience and knowledge in playing and coaching football, instructing clients in resistance training, preparing clients for endurance events and instructing a number of different classes including circuit training, spinning and his own personal favourite, high intensity interval training. He holds qualifications in personal training, nutrition advice, sports conditioning, supple strength, exercise for older adults and exercise referral, all gained through YMCA Fitness Industry Training, one of the UK’s leading training providers. Whether your goals are to lose weight, increase your level of fitness, get in shape for a special event or just to take the first steps towards a more active and healthy lifestyle, then John can help. Once we have established your goals, he will write a safe, effective and progressive programme that is designed specifically for you. Novice to athlete, inclusive of all abilities and ages John will inspire you to achieve your fitness goals.

Running: Top Tips to Get Motivated

Written by Hannah de Gruchy

Whether you’re a new runner or you’ve been pounding the pavement for years, we can probably all relate to a feeling of dread when lacing up our trainers at times.  Feeling stuck? Read on for some tips and tricks to get re-energised!

Determine a realistic, measurable goal. 

Do you want to run one mile without stopping? Race your first 5K? Improve your time for a specific distance? Finish a marathon? Set a realistic goal that you’re excited about and that will allow you to compare progress week to week. Avoid setting general goals like “get into shape” or “get faster”; it’s hard to maintain focus when there’s nothing specific to measure. Keep a detailed training log; the ability to track your progress toward a goal will help keep you focused and teach you what works and what doesn’t. To hold yourself accountable, choose a goal race within a few short months.

Try some new gear. 

A new pair of running shoes can make all the difference. Visit a running store and have them check your ‘biomechanics’, or gait.  Ensuring you’re wearing the proper shoe will aid in injury prevention and a more comfortable run. If you’re not ready for a new pair of shoes, treat yourself to a comfortable vest, sports bra or a new pair of shorts. It’s not much, and just might put a little pep in your step next time you’re heading out to run!

Find a fun route. 

Consistently running on a treadmill? Head outside and explore. Already an outdoor runner? If every run takes you along the same street, try switching it up. Venture to a local running track or bike path. Run home from work or run a loop you’re bored of in the opposite direction.

Switch up your workouts. 

If you’re consistently running alone, find a friend to join you or ask someone to bike alongside you. If you’ve been doing a lot of easy runs, try adding some speed work or adding in some extra hills once a week. Or, try the run/walk method; run for ten minutes and walk for one minute. Complete this sequence a few times until you reach your time or distance goal. Want an even simpler method? Pick up the pace between two landmarks (like traffic lights or lamp posts), and recover in between the next.

Create a new playlist. 

If it’s safe for you to listen to music while running, find some new, upbeat songs to pump you up. Check out the “Fitness & Workout” genre on iTunes for some inspiration!

Run for someone else. 

Research some local charities. Not only can you raise money for a great cause, but you’ll have a new appreciation for your health and abilities. They will often provide you with everything from coaches to a fundraising webpage.

Take a break. 

If you’re really dreading each run, it’s okay to take a break! Try a different activity like cycling or swimming. Switch your focus to building strength and add in some weight training if you haven’t already. Feeling run-down altogether? Rest. Listen to your body to determine when you should start running again. After some time off, you’ll feel refreshed and much more excited when the time comes for your next run.  Hopefully…


[author] [author_image timthumb=’on’][/author_image] [author_info]Written by guest blogger Hannah de Gruchy from Monitor My Monitor My Body is an online healthy living and fitness company working to get you, the nation, eating right and finding fun and inspiring ways to stay fit. Read their inspiring blog, find them on Facebook and Twitter and watch out for some exciting news that could benefit you coming soon.[/author_info] [/author]

Avocado – The Green Superfood

By Anita Tar

Avocado is one of the healthiest food, so we call it a “superfood”and it totally deserves its „nickname…” This completely natural, delicious food has so many benefits to our body and it even tastes lovely! In my article I want to help you to discover why you should eat it every day… Lets get to know it!

An avocado is a fruit from an avocado tree that contains a single see from the tree.  Avocados have a green-skinned, fleshy body and can be egg-shaped, pear-shaped, or spherical.  The fruit ripens after it has been harvested.  There are more than 80 different varieties of avocado -I guess you didn’t know that, neither did I – Although the avocado tree is native to Central Mexico, the two main productions areas within the United States are Florida and California, with approximately 90% coming from California.

Why we call it superfood?

Avocados are an excellent source of fibre, potassium and vitamins, including vitamins C, K, folate, and B6.  In fact, avocados have the highest concentration of protein and vitamin E of any fruit.

An entire avocado has about 320 calories and 30 grams of heart-healthy unsaturated fat, making it a good source of energy.  It only contains about 4 grams of saturated fat.  Because unsaturated fats are a necessary part of a healthy diet, an avocado is an ideal (and delicious way to get it).  With that one avocado, you get 1/3 of your daily value of vitamin C and more than half the day’s requirements of vitamin K.

Having avocado in your diet additionally helps reduce high cholesterol levels with their significant phytosterols content. Phytosterols, like beta-sitosterol found in avocados, are compounds that are structurally similar to cholesterol and can block its absorption during digestion. Phytosterols also have anti-inflammatory properties and are believed to be useful in helping to prevent diseases of inflammation like arthritis and heart disease. There have been positive studies recently associating beta-sitosterol with an increase in the body’s immune response. Avocados in particular are a good source of phytosterols, but unrefined avocado oil is even richer in these beneficial nutrients. Switching from heavily processed and pro-inflammatory cooking oils like canola oil to inflammation reducing avocado oil would be a significant step to better health for many people.

Avocado nutrition contains a broad spectrum of antioxidant which provide important protection for your body’s cells from free radical damage that leads to the visible signs of ageing and a variety of diseases like cancer. The strongest concentrations of these carotenoids are found just below the avocado skin, so make sure you eat as much as possible of the greener pulp there.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin are two other special antioxidants found in good levels in avocados. They are uniquely important for protecting the macula area of your eyes that is responsible for short range vision and detail and allowing you read the words on this screen. Having a diet high in lutein and zeaxanthin has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (the leading cause of blindness in the elderly) and cataracts later in life.

Foods like butternut squash, green leafy vegetables and goji berries are also good sources. Vitamin C is another powerful antioxidant nutrient found in avocado, Higher levels of vitamin C in the foods you eat will help protect against heart disease, improve circulation, boost your immunity and enhance collagen production for beautiful skin.

Vitamin E is also a strong antioxidant and, being fat soluble, is particularly beneficial for preventing cholesterol oxidation that is believed to contribute to heart attacks and strokes.Vitamin E can also enhance your appearance by allowing your skin to retain more moisture within its epidermal layer and protecting it from free radical damage that leads to wrinkles, sagging skin and other visible signs of ageing.

How Beneficial Is Fish Oil Really?

By Anthony Masters

Before I start I would like to illiterate that throughout my life I have always sought out opposing opinions and evidence with almost everything I study, I find this a fundamental learning process in human development and to help formulate my own personal beliefs. Now for years as a trainer I have promoted fish oil to clients, friends and family for its vast beneficial qualities towards human health. My opinions have now changed, I am now more cautious to the use of it, especially in the long term after recently reading a few interesting articles. I would personally use fish oil for fast fat loss goals, improve hormonal profile and to help rebalance the omega 3:6 ratio and nothing else. I promote a lot of Charles Poliquin supplements and protocols for their quality and effectiveness. But the use of fish oil I am a lot more careful with now as it suppresses the immune function which always worries me and in the long term can be hazardous to our body. This is why after you have read what is to come I can not stress anymore the importance of getting good quality fish oil and keeping it refrigerated. A lot of what is written here on is more of a summary of other peoples works and not mine. I simply want to raise a few questions that may make you think twice. Ask yourself these questions:

Are essential fatty acids really that essential?

Do heart healthy oils harm us?

Why is temperature and environment so important?

Here is a summary from the works of Rob Turner and Ray Peat to help you make up your own mind.

“Saturated fats are more abundant in the animal world and unsaturated fats predominate in the vegetable world and in fish. This has been a part of nature’s adaptation to the environment, and does not signify that a mistake was made in the creation of warm-blooded animals.” -Broda and Charlotte Barnes

Marketing Magic

“The image of “hard, white saturated coconut oil” isn’t relevant to the oil’s biological action, but the image of “sticky varnish-like easily oxidized unsaturated seed oils” is highly relevant to their toxicity.”-Ray Peat, PhD

There is much marketing momentum behind some fats, like fish oils and seed oils, so taking into account how financial interests play a role is important in what the public and what professionals believe as truth. Anyone who has a conflict of interest in the matter (a reason to gain financially) should not be trusted on the matter – think Charles Poliquin and Udo Erasmus.


Dietary fats come in three different structures predominantly – saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Each dietary fat is actually a combination of all three of these structures. For example, 100% saturated fats don’t exist but rather a saturated fat will contain mostly saturated fat as well as smaller amounts of monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat.

Saturated fats are very stable and remain solid at room temperature and below while turning into liquid above room temperature (they are liquid at human body temperature). Saturated fats do not contain any double bonds between carbon atoms like those seen in their unsaturated counterparts. The carbon atoms of saturated fats are saturated with single bonds to hydrogen atoms; the carbon atoms have the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms. This means that oxygen, light, or temperature does not easily break these bonds apart and change them. Saturated fats are non reactive.

Monounsaturated fats (MUFA) are liquid at room temperature and become cloudy in the refrigerator. MUFA have one (“mono”) double carbon bond and are relatively stable but this double bond can be affected by oxygen, temperature, and light over time which contributes to MUFA’s instability. This single double bond is susceptible to being modified and broken down. The single bond also manipulates the structure of the fat and creates a “kink” or bend.

Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) are liquid at any temperature above freezing, are highly reactive, spoil quickly, & have two or more (”poly”) open double carbon bonds. PUFA are the most unstable of the three types of fats.

Because PUFA have multiple double bonds, they also have multiple kinks or bends in their structure. Oxygen, light, and temperature can easily break these fats apart at the site of the double bonds and create free radicals (lipid peroxides) that destroy important enzymes and damage vital energy producing cell structures. You cannot digest foods, dissolve blood clots, or release your thyroid hormone without enzymes. By reacting with oxygen, PUFA promote harmful oxidation while interfering with the productive use of oxygen.

Nature’s Examples

“Over the years, it has become evident that the polyunsaturated fats are not very compatible with a high rate of metabolism, though they are necessary for organisms that live at low temperatures and metabolise slowly, such as fish and vegetables. The saturated fats solidify at low temperature; beef fat is very stiff at refrigerator temperature, and in a fat fish, such stiffness would be lethal.” -Ray Peat, PhD

Many fish live in waters near freezing temperatures and are required to have liquid fats (polyunsaturated fats). Butter in your refrigerator hardens because it’s mostly saturated. This difference between the fats of a fish and the fats of cow’s milk from which butter is derived is explained by their different structures.

It’s these structural differences that we need to pay close attention to when making dietary choices. There are examples in nature that make things the picture clear. For example, if a fish had predominantly saturated fats in its tissues, it would have hardened fat and wouldn’t be able to move through cold water. Seeds exposed to cold temperatures have mostly PUFA in their tissues for similar reasons.

“The other reason is that the seeds are designed to germinate in early spring, so their energy stores must be accessible when the temperatures are cool, and they normally don’t have to remain viable through the hot summer months. Unsaturated oils are liquid when they are cold, and this is necessary for any organism that lives at low temperatures. For example, fish in cold water would be stiff if they contained saturated fats. These oils easily get rancid (spontaneously oxidizing) when they are warm and exposed to oxygen. Seeds contain a small amount of vitamin E to delay rancidity. When the oils are stored in our tissues, they are much warmer, and more directly exposed to oxygen, than they would be in the seeds, and so their tendency to oxidize is very great. These oxidative processes can damage enzymes and other parts of cells, and especially their ability to produce energy.” -Ray Peat, PhD

“The fact that saturated fats are dominant in tropical plants and in warm-blooded animals relates to the stability of these oils at high temperatures. Coconut oil which had been stored at room temperature for a year was found to have no measurable rancidity. Since growing coconuts often experience temperatures around 100 degrees Fahrenheit, ordinary room temperature isn’t an oxidative challenge. Fish oil or safflower oil, though, can’t be stored long at room temperature, and at 98 degrees F the spontaneous oxidation is very fast.” -Ray Peat, PhD

Just as liquid oils are necessary for organisms that can’t regulate their temperature but live at cold temperatures, saturated fats are necessary for organisms that live at high temperature or have a warm body temperature. For example, coconuts grow in tropical environments with temperatures that mimic the human body’s internal temperature (around 100 degrees). A predominance of liquid polyunsaturated fatty acids in a coconut’s tissues would quickly go rancid and breakdown at such temperatures just as they do when exposed to heat and oxygen in our body. Amazonian fish and soy beans living or growing respectively in hot temps have more saturated fat in their tissues relative to the same species living or growing in colder environments.

Saturated fats don’t work in cold-water fish; polyunsaturates don’t work in the high temperatures of the tropics. We should learn from natures’ examples. The organism’s exposure to oxygen, body temperature, and/or environment determine the fats which are ideal for the organism.

Since we are omnivorous, our consumption of polyunsaturates is reflected in our fat tissues. As we eat more polyunsaturates with ageing, these fats accumulate. It’s not to our advantage to eat foods containing large amounts of polyunsaturates or to refine these liquid oils, take them out of their intended environment, and introduce them into a place (i.e. our bodies) where they don’t belong. Our fats should be predominantly stable at warm temperatures (~98F/37C) and when exposed to oxygen, but when we consistently eat foods rich in polyunsaturates we violate this rule. The warm, oxygen-rich internal environment of humans isn’t the place for large amounts of reactive polyunsaturates.

Protective Saturated Fat

Non-reactive saturated fats are best for our physiology because they do not break down into toxic by products (lipid peroxides) like PUFA do in such an environment. It’s important to also note that when the body forms fats from carbohydrate, it does not form these unstable, toxic fats. This left the door open for some to believe in “essential fatty acids.”

An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal functioning that either cannot be synthesized by our body at all, or cannot be made in amounts adequate for good health, and thus must be obtained from a dietary source. It’s true that the body doesn’t synthesize the so called “essential fatty acids” (EFA). “EFA” and other PUFA are environmentally derived, but these fats are not needed for human health. The body doesn’t make these fats because they’re toxic, not because they’re essential. More discussion on that topic here and here.

Endogenously formed fats or saturated fats from the diet carry none of PUFA’s negatives effects. PUFA harm fetal and childhood development, immunity, mitochondrion health, thyroid function, and the activity of key enzyme involved in energy production called cytochrome oxidase . These fats also promote estrogen, development of age pigmentation, liver inflammation, heart damage, brain degeneration, slowed detoxification, and depressed longevity. PUFA are protectively found in seeds, nuts, beans, and above ground vegetables to inhibit the digestion of grazing animals except those which have developed a digestive physiology to overcome them (herbivores). Humans are omnivores.

Fish Oil

The fish oils are the most unsaturated fat (have the most double bonds) and pose many dangers for humans. EPA and DHA, polyunsaturated fats found in fish, have five and six double bonds respectively. EPA and DHA are ideal for cold waters, but your body temperature is far warmer and not suited for such fats.

Fish oils are exceptionally well-suited at suppressing immune function. They “reduce inflammation” in large part by destroying immunity much the way x-rays used to for inflammatory conditions. The use of x-rays to reduce inflammation in rheumatic sufferers brought about atrophy, fibrosis, and cancer. The massive use of fish oils will prove to do the same.

Fish oils do inhibit the production of prostaglandins by interfering with the conversion of linoleic acid into arachidonic acid making them anti-inflammatory in that way. Aspirin, vitamin E, and a PUFA-deficient diet produce similar effects without the suppressive effects on the immune system and thyroid. Fish oils are directly associated with Alzheimer’s. Saturated fats are protective against the disease.

Paints & Varnishes

“When exposed to air natural fatty acids having two or more double bonds tend to undergo a complex process called autooxidation, in which molecular oxygen attacks a double bond to yield a series of products which ultimately polymerize to form a hard resinous material. Linseed oil, used a base for paints, is rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids, and undergoes this polymerization process as it “dries.” Autoxidation of unsaturated fats in the tissues is also believed to occur in some disease.” -Albert Lehninger, PhD

It’s the formation of this resinous material that should make polyunsaturates garner more attention in discussions regarding heart disease.

Food marketers want the public to forget the liquid oils’ historic uses. Fish and seeds oils were previously used as paints/varnishes because of their propensity to react with oxygen (“autooxidation”) and stick to the canvas. When petroleum based paints came around, the market for fish and seed oils vanished because it’s cheaper to make paints/varnishes from oil. The clever seed and fish oil industries created a new market – the supermarket – capitalizing on the erroneous research saying the fats within these oils were essential, heart healthy, and/or lowered cholesterol.

The third reason is true (although it’s another toxic effect) and the first two reasons are false and prove harmful. This mega market for PUFA still exists today to the financial benefit of seed and fish oil manufacturers but to the detriment of human health. Don’t fall for the marketing.


Most processed/packaged food manufacturers and restaurants use polyunsaturated oils so make sure to check food labels. These oils are cheaper than safer options, like butter and coconut oil. When money is at stake, your health takes a back seat. Below is a list showing the major dietary sources of PUFA and saturated fat. Keep dietary fat consumption high in saturated fats and low in polyunsaturated fats.


These fats are liquid at refrigerator temperatures

  • Any nut, seed, bean, or vegetable oil
  • Soy oil
  • Sesame Oil
  • Peanut Oil
  • Wheat Germ Oil
  • Corn oil
  • Safflower oil
  • Cottonseed Oil
  • Canola Oil (used in cooking at Whole Foods Market)
  • Fish oil
  • Hempseed Oil
  • Grape Seed Oil
  • Flax Seed Oil/Linseed Oil
  • Walnut Oil
  • Almond Oil
  • Borage Oil
  • Evening Primrose Oil
  • Grains
  • Above ground vegetables
  • Beans
  • Nuts
  • Industrially fed poultry and pigs
  • “Omega 3″ or “Omega 6″ on labels

Saturated Fats – These fats are solid at refrigerator temperatures

  • Cocoa butter, chocolate (without soy lecithin)
  • (Refined) coconut oil
  • (Salted) Butter
  • Ghee
  • Dairy
  • Ruminant fat (buffalo, cow, goat, lamb, deer)
  • Pastured eggs
  • Pastured or wild animal fats

References: Articles: “The great fish oil experiment” and “Unsaturated fatty acids: nutritionally essential or toxic?

About Anthony

Anthony has been in the fitness industry for over 16 years. In the early years competing as a semi-pro tennis player touring internationally on the ITF circuit, later in life exploring the practices of CrossFit, rock climbing, snowboarding, Olympic weightlifting and triathlons. In order to improve his knowledge and better himself as a trainer for his clients he has continued to research vast subjects, getting into official and unofficial studies of anatomy, physiology, psychology, bio-mechanics, training methodology, nutrition, sports and mind-body practices.

[author] [author_image timthumb=’on’][/author_image] [author_info]Anthony Masters is a Personal Trainer at MoreFit St Paul’s. Having worked with clients with a variety of goals ranging from stress reduction, fat loss, rehabilitation, strength training, pre/ post natal, endurance and sport specific training he is confident to tailor a specific training program to the clients individual needs. Making every session different, challenging and fun, Anthony’s motto is “you give him 100% and he will give you 110% back” as your success is his success! [/author_info] [/author]